Our Library of published articles, discussion documents and specialist papers provides a valuable in-depth resource on a wide range of topics relevant to the aggregates industry. While the content may not necessarily reflect our views, we hope it will develop into a useful resource.

General Process

Meeting the Challenge of a Maturing Aggregate Market
Aggregates Business Europe, January/February 2016 - Hugo Pettingell
Another opinion piece for Aggregates Business Europe on the development of relevant aggregate processing in a developing market.
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Aggregates’ Innovation: Friend or Foe?
Aggregates Business Europe, September/October 2014 - Aggregate Research Ltd
An opinion piece written for Aggregates Business Europe at a time when, instead of looking to develop new and more relevant products, many players were relying on cost-cutting as their main tactic to achieve apparent profitability. The signs of recovery from a period of stagnation were there to see, but opportunities to upgrade the product range were mysteriously low priority.
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Stockpile Segregation
2000 - Jerry Nohl, P.E. and Bob Domnick
This paper on Segregation is a useful reminder that material quality can deteriorate during and after production, simply because particles of different sizes have little inclination to remain in the same positions relative to each other, and need to be encouraged to do so.
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Manufactured Sand

An Experimental Sand Project
January 2017 - Hugo Pettingell
A bold exception to the risk-averse rule of the last decade or so, this experimental unit was commissioned to explore possibilities in dry manufacture of sand from crushed rock.
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Manufactured Sand
September 2012 - Hugo Pettingell
A presentation on the subject of sand manufacture from crushed rock, used by the author in various forms over the last decade to try to stimulate interest in abandoning the environmentally unacceptable practice of laying waste large areas of land, river- or sea-bed in order to harvest an imperfect, convenient, but finite source of aggregate.
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The Development of Sand Manufacture from Crushed Rock in Japan, Using Advanced VSI Technology
2009 - Takato Kaya, Makoto Hashimoto and Hugo Pettingell
This Japanese process demonstrates that, when natural sands are no longer available, it is possible to manufacture sand that compares favourably with the material the industry is so reluctant to relinquish. Typically, natural sand exploitation is environmentally unacceptable, the material itself is inconsistent, and reserves are now seriously depleted, whereas crushed rock is abundant, environmentally acceptable, and processing correctly leads to a consistent reliable product.
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An Experimental Study on The Guidelines for Using Higher Contents of Aggregate Microfines in Portland Cement Concrete
November 2001 - Nam-Shik Ahn and David W. Fowler
A seminal paper on the subject of microfines (<63µm or <75µm) in concrete mixes, largely discrediting the common prejudices regarding the ill effects of their inclusion in concrete mixes.
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How crushers affect product quality
Quarry, April 1999 - Barry Hudson
In this article Barry Hudson investigates the impact of various crushing technologies on the final product.
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Concrete Workability with High Fines Content
Quarry, February 1999 - Barry Hudson
In this article, exploring manufactured sands and aggregates, Barry Hudson looks into the importance of having high fines contents in the manufactured sand gradation.
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Specifications allowing high fines content
Quarry, March 1999 - Barry Hudson
Overwhelming test data and performance records from around the world suggest that manufactured sands can not only be an alternative to natural sands, but they can actually outperform natural sands in terms of the quality of the finished concrete, and lower the total cost of the raw materials
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Impact of Manufactured Sand in Concrete
Quarry, December 1998 - Barry Hudson
This article is an introduction to the properties of manufactured sand that will allow higher percentages of materials passing the 200 mesh sieve (75 micron).
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Impact and Properties of Manufactured Sand
Quarry, November 1998 - Barry Hudson
In the first in a series of articles discussing the impact and properties of manufactured sand, Barry Hudson explores the properties of aggregates and how they influence concrete performance and cost.
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The long-predicted world shortage of sand for construction is now a reality, not least in parts of the UK and Europe. These articles and presentations serve to explain the problem in some detail.
The World is Running Out of Sand
New York Times, May 2017 - David Owen
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Impact of Sand Mining
July 2016 - Samaira Abdulali at TEDxXIE
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Sand, rarer than one thinks
March 2014 - UNEP Global Environmental Alert Service (GEAS)
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Let’s Talk About Sand
November 2013 - Denis Delestrac at TEDxBarcelona
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Crushing Technology

Effects of Concrete Aggregate Crushing on Rheological Properties of Concrete and Matrix
July 2011 - Rolands Cepuritis
Comprehensive academic thesis on the effects of concrete aggregate crushing on rheological properties of concrete and matrix (12MB file).
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The Impact of Aggregate Quality on Concrete Performance
2002 - Barry Hudson
Understanding and measuring the factors that affect aggregate performance in concrete
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Prolonging Cone Crusher Liner Life
QM, April 2002 - Douglas McGill
An interesting process for prolonging life and customising performance of cone and gyratory crusher manganese.
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Cement Pregrinding TBB Paper
1995 - Tamal Bhattacharya
A paper on the use of Autogenous VSI Crushing to reduce specific energy consumption and increase capacity of ball mills.
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Concrete Technology

Scientists explain ancient Rome’s long-lasting concrete
July 2017 - BBC
Researchers have unlocked the chemistry of Roman concrete which has resisted the elements for thousands of years.
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